ISSN: 2709-6718

Volume 2, Issue 1

Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter 2022

The Effect of Different Urban Forms on Microclimate in Hot Arid Climates

Safa Hyader; susan hassan

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Traditional cities are characterized by different urban forms. The transformations in urban formation came in response to human needs over time and technological developments. This research explores the relationship between urban forms and microclimate in hot aired climate cities. A comparative analysis for two selected urban forms patterns in Baghdad city as example of ancient cities in hot aired climate. The study investigates the influence of urban form on microclimate. The research relied on the ENVIMET 4.4.2 software simulation program to determine the microclimatic differences. The results showed that urban form in traditional areas achieved better results in microclimate (air temperatures, the average mean radiant temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) as compared to modern urban form during daytime periods, especially in hot afternoon times, which may negatively affect the urban microclimate and the thermal comfort of pedestrians in the spaces of modern urban form.

Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Heavy Naphtha with Hydrogen Peroxide in the presence of Catalyst (PMN550)

Najm ALMhanawi; Mohammed Ali Mutar

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 11-30

Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of the heavy naphtha fractions has been researched with the use of the air-assisted formic acid and H2O2 oxidation in the presence of the natural zeolite (PMN 550 )as the catalyst. The catalyst used was synthesized in the lab. and identified through FT-IR, AFM, BET, XRD, XRF, SEM, and TGA thermal analyses showed that the prepared catalyst has an efficient catalyst characteristic. The yield of the desulfurization in the cases of HN has been increased in the presence of the natural zeolite (PMN-550) and HN’s sulfur content has been decreased from 651.3 ppm to < 10 ppm in a 60 min period at a temperature of 90 Co, which has resulted in subsequent removal of sulfur compounds from octane phase. This oxidative treatment effectively reduced the sulfur content of heavy naphtha, and adsorption with PMN550 further reduced the sulfur content to below 9 mass ppm. A batch reactor was used to evaluate the performance of the prepared catalyst at different reaction temperatures (20-120 °C), and batch time (20-140 min.) with different amounts of natural zeolite (PMN550) catalyst. Numerous parameters of the design have been utilized for the determination of factors giving the optimal sulfur content removal from the HN in the batch modes. The studied operating conditions were the ratio of H2O2 to heavy naphtha, temperature, solution pH, catalyst weight and contact time.

Evaluating the Performance of Locally Used and Produced Drip Irrigation Systems

Jameel Rawwash; Hussam Hadi ِAlwana

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 31-43

Drip irrigation is a system for supplying filtered water and sometimes fertilizer directly onto or into the soil. Clogging causes poor distribution along the lateral line, and it may take time before they are discovered, cleaned, or repaired, resulting in a poor distribution of plant watering along the lateral line. As a result, it is necessary to investigate the hydraulic performance of these systems to zero in on the most important influencing parameters. In this study, the irrigation systems produced and imported, which are frequently used by farmers in the Iraqi Governorate of Kerbala. The results obtained for systems of drip irrigation indicate when using dripper (1), the field uniformity ranged between 73.4% to 88%. The uniformity of absolute ranges between 73% and 86% and the design uniformity range between 70.8% and 85.2%. The uniformity coefficient of statistical (SUc) was ranging between 73.4% and 88.6%. The coefficient of variation ( ) for the irrigation system was ranging between 0.26 and 0.11%. The efficiency of application ranged from 73.4% to 86.8%. When using dripper (2), the field uniformity obtained ranged from 84% to 95%, the uniformity of absolute ranged between 83% and 94%. The design uniformity ranged from 79.7% to 93%, and the uniformity coefficient of statistical (SUc) was ranging between 86% and 95%. The coefficient of variation ( ) ranged from 0.13 to 0.05%, and the efficiency of application ranged between 82.5% and 94%.

Behavior of RC Continuous Spliced One-Way Slab with Four Types of Concrete in Splice Regions

Israa Ali; Ali Hameed; Zainab Abdul Rasoul

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-58

This paper sheds light on the behavior of reinforced concrete RC spliced one-way slab OWS in the case of using four types of concrete in the splice region in addition to the non-spliced specimen. Five specimens have been used, one cast as a monolithic unit for comparative and four consisting of three precast members and two splice regions with (normal concrete NC, high strength concrete HSC, slurry infiltrated fiber reinforced concrete SIFCON, and reactive powder concrete RPC). The whole dimensions of specimens are 2130mm length, 600mm width, and 100mm thickness. The parameters that have been studied which first flexural cracks, ultimate load, max deflection, longitudinal concrete strain and failure mode in addition to calculating a new index called ductility index which represented the capacity of ductility after failure, in which proportions to the deflection at ultimate load and flexural cracking load. The results from the investigation test shows that in the case of using RPC and SIFCON in the splice region, there is a convergence in increasing value of ultimate load and deflection. While no improvement in specimens' behavior with NC and HSC in the splice region.

Numerical Study of an Adsorption Water Desalination System Utilizing Low-grade Heat Sources

Esraa Hussien; Mohammed W. Al-Jibory; Fadhel N. Al-Mousawi

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 59-72

Adsorption desalination technology has gotten a lot of attention in the recent decade. It can be powered by waste heat sources, which means it uses less energy and emits less CO2. This research investigates a two-bed silica-gel/water-based system. The conservation of energy/momentum equations of the current system are modeled using MATLAB SIMULINK software, as a result of which the energy balance equations for the adsorber bed, condenser, and evaporator were solved. The study is carried out with the investigation of many key parameters like heat source, condenser, evaporator temperatures and half-cycle time to find their effect on the SPECIFIC DAILY WATER PRODUCTION (SDWP) and SPECIFIC COOLING POWER (SCP) generated from the system. The simulation model used in this paper was verified using previously published experimental research. The results show that the maximum (SDWP) generated from the system is (19.3221 l/kgads/day) and (SCP) is (493.183 W/kgads). A comparison was made to the current research with previously published research, and promising results were obtained.