Current Issue
Volume 1, Issue 1

Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2020, Page 1-70

Evaluation the Effect of Pressure Head and Soil Type on Erosion and Subsidence of Soil Due to Defective Sewers

Hussein.H. Khudhair; Basim K. Nile; Jabbar H. Al-Baidhani

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

Internal degradation induced in the metropolitan areas by leakage of sewers. As the resistance to erosion depends on the distribution of soil particles and the water pressure in sewer pipes, it is worthwhile to research the impact of water pressure on the soil erosion resistance of embedded pipes. This study aims to find  physical model tests which simulating erosion and sinkhole development due to cyclic leakage in an experimental ground model through defect sewers. Proposed parameters like cyclic leaks through pipe crashes, eroded soil properties, initiation cavity, and evolution up until sinkhole failure were studied. During this process, the ground settlement monitored with Paricle:Image Velocimetry (PIV). Also,  soils with various classification were utilized to identify the total subsidence for the different soil types. Five various water pressures were used:i.e., 0.8,1.1,1.4,1.7, and 2.0 meter,(7.85, 10.79, 13.73, 16.76, and 19.61 Kpa), respectively, and  local sandy soil, local loamy soil, and local clayey soil also were used. The results showed that two parameters influence soil failure,noticebliy:- the first is water pressure which has a direct proportion to erosion and subsidence, where the increment of total eroded soil of 2.0 m water head reached 3.95 times 0.8 m head , and the second is soil types which showed that the clayey soil is highly sensitive and suffering more from subsidence rather than erosion on the contrary of other soil types.

Viability of utilizing the global methods for assessing the sustainability of urban design projects in Iraq

Raed Fawzi Mohammed Ameen; Saba Jabbar Kadhum Almayyahi

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

Due to rapid urbanization, cities and urban areas become responsible for about two- thirds of CO2 and the GHG emissions, as well as the depletion of different types of energies and natural resources. The sustainable of urban development may be considered a fundamental solution which can achieve the balance between human needs and nature. Furthermore, it facilitates the dealing with urban design challenges for the long term. It also encourages local community engagement in the design process through different stages, as well as contributing to decision-making to create sustainability of urban design. From this vision, many global assessment tools were emerged and have been used in different countries around the world. This paper aims to clarify the viability of using well-known methods to assess the urban design projects in Iraq and the suitability of local realities. The proper conduct analysis of current situations based on an in-depth critical review and a comprehensive comparison among three well-known urban sustainability assessment methods, namely: BREEAM Communities from the UK, LEED-ND from US, and PEARLS Communities from the UAE (as a neighbouring country to Iraq). The study conducted an in-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of the main evaluation criteria for the selected tools, such as content use, the weighting system, scoring, certificate rating, and the context. The key findings stressed that the global assessment tools in used, are focusing on the sustainability assessment of the local context and dealt with the local urban challenges. Therefore, they cannot be generalized to be global tools that can be used anywhere, especially for urban design and development projects in Iraq.

Evaluation the existing drip irrigation network of Fadak Farm

Juhaina S. Abdulhadi; Hussam Hadi Alwan

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

Drip irrigation is used where water resources are scarce and expensive or have salt problems. This system distributes water over a pipe network to the field and converts it by emitters from the pipe network to the plant. Many experiments were carried out in Fadak Farm that based in the Governorate of holy Karbala / Iraq. This study aims to assess the performance of the drip irrigation systems installed for the date palm. The head discharge relationships for emitters were expressed at different operating pressure, and the best model equipped with the highest R2 was calculated. Results from established models for the relationship of pressure discharge indicated that the pressure exponent was less than 0.5, which indicated that the type of dripper is compensated pressure. By measuring the discharge rates for emitters, the uniformity parameters, namely: absolute emission uniformity, field emission uniformity, coefficient of variation, application efficiency, design emission uniformity, statistical uniformity coefficient, emitter flow variation and pressure variation were determined. The obtained results for drip system indicate 96.5% for field emission uniformity, 96.25% for absolute emission uniformity, 95.9% for design emission uniformity, 97% for statistical uniformity coefficient, 6.85% for emitter flow variation, 0.026 for coefficient of variation, 96.5% for application efficiency, and 16.98% for pressure variation. In this study, the drip irrigation system was worked well efficiently over the entire study region. The performance of the drip system under study can be classified as excellent in accordance to the criteria used to assess the current drip irrigation system over the defined area of study and compared with the standards laid down.

Investigating the physical properties of reed fly ash modified asphalt binder

Rand Mahdy; Shakir Al-Busaltan

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-17

Asphalt binder represents a visco-elastic material that consist of four types of chemical fractions named saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltene, differ in their polarity and molecular weight, and then their effect on the properties of asphalt binder. The high solar absorption of asphalt binder due to its black color, making asphalt pavements suffer from various types of distresses like: rutting, fatigue, raveling, etc. The high increment in traffic loads and volumes nowadays leads to sever increment in these distresses. Therefore, the concept of improving asphalt pavements, as well as, reducing the environmental problems and maintaining the natural resources, in addition to saving costs, have stimulated researchers to use the sustainable materials in the improvement process of asphalt binder. Nevertheless, there are limited researches deals with these modifiers. This study aims to study the effect of Reed Fly Ash (RFA) that is represents a type of by-product materials on the physical properties of asphalt binder. Neat bitumen was blend with three dosages of RFA: 6%, 12% and 18% by weight of bitumen. The effect of this modifier on the properties of bitumen was characterized in terms of penetration, softening point, ductility, penetration index, viscosity and aging. The results of these properties indicate that the use of RFA as a modifier for asphalt binder help in decrease both penetration and ductility, increase softening point, viscosity and bitumen sensitivity, as well as, help in enhance the resistance of bitumen to aging, and the influence of RFA on these properties increase as RFA increase. The results encourage the concept of enhancing the asphalt binder by fly ash products.

Investigation on the Effects of Various Pore-Forming Agents on Bending Strength and Porosity of Al2O3 Ceramics

Mohammed Sabah Ali

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-17

The current paper shows an economic and simple way which useful approach to produce porous ceramics (alumina) using three types of pore-forming agents (PFAs) utilizing a fugitive materials technique. Yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk (commercial), and waste of graphite from used primary batteries have been used as (PFAs). Practical results revealed that with increasing the PFA ratio for yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk, and waste of graphite the porosity increased from 30.2 to 63.8 %, 42.9 to 49.0%, and 37.3 to 61.1% respectively. Utilizing the three-point bending test, the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of porous ceramics (alumina) specimens was a function of the level of porosity. The characterization of mechanical behavior exhibit that the bending strength using the ash of rice husk increased at 50 wt% (92.38 ± 2.68 MPa) and 30 wt %( 93.03±4.07) due to the presence of the ceramic phases. While the bending strength of porous ceramics (alumina) using yeast material (natural active) and waste of graphite as PFAs decreased from 72.56±3.07 to 20.72±1.58 MPa and from 71.28±1.78 to 30.42±2.15 MPa respectively. Recommended application fields include the metal of molten, hot gas filters, and implantation processes.