About Journal

Scope of KJES The Kerbala Journal for Engineering Sciences has been founded in 2020 with a mission to focus upon publishing recent developments and updates in a broad range of engineering sciences. These sciences are relevant to several fields including but not limited to: Civil, Architecture, Mechanical, Electrical, Petroleum, Biomedical, Prosthetic Engineering. The journal is available online with unrestricted access to all its scientific articles. Researchers across the world from various applied sciences and engineering disciplines are welcome to submit their scientific contributions in the...
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Journal Information

Toward Semi Flexible Pavement Application for Iraqi Highway and Airport Pavements: Review its feasibility

Saif Hameed Hlail

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The paving industry within the last century has developed extensively, mainly two paving technologies have targeted in this development, namely: flexible and rigid pavements. Although such technologies’ development is deeply enhanced, they still have unsolved shortcomings. Therefore, pavement researchers and engineers suggested benefiting from these two technology advantages by gathering them in a new technology called semi-flexible paving (SFP) to overcome the pointed shortcoming. The structural composition of SFP consists of porous asphalt, which contains air voids (25-35) % that inject with cementitious grout materials. As a result, the SFP surface course combines the pre-eminent qualities of bituminous pavements (flexible) and concrete (rigid). Serving the literature disclosed that the SFP has a very high resistance to the effect of traffic loads and weather conditions compared to conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA). Previous studies have shown that it can be applied in places with heavy traffic, i.e. heavy and slow traffic, for example, industrial areas, harbors, warehouses, distribution centers, road crossing, bus terminals, parking areas with heavy traffic, cargo centers, airports pavements, etc. Therefore, under uncontrolled high axle loads and extreme high summer and low winter ambient temperatures, SFP represents a suitable and achievable technique.

Calculation of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Finite Length Journal Bearing Considering 3D Misalignment

Zahraa A. AL Dujaili

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The main purpose of the journal bearing is to support the rotating parts by providing a sufficient layer of lubricant to separate the surfaces of the moving parts and to minimize the friction due to rotation. The misalignment is one of the common problems in the industrial applications of this type of bearing which has consequences on the general performance of the bearing system. The consequences include the reduction in the bearing load carrying capacity and the effect on the levels of the pressure distribution in additional to the asymmetrical pressure distribution along the bearing width. This study considers extreme cases of misalignment using a 3D model of the shaft deviation for the case of a finite length bearing. Numerical solution for Reynolds equation is considered in this work using the finite difference method where the static and dynamic characteristics of finite length journal bearing are investigated. The results reveal that the film thickness reduces significantly particularly at the edges of the additional to the presence of pressure spikes at these locations. Furthermore, the results of the dynamic coefficients have shown that the 3D misalignment affects these coefficients significantly which may have further consequences on the stability of the system.

Investigation Study for Model Reference Fuzzy Control Scheme of Synchronous Generator Coupled with Wind Turbine

Ahmed S. Al Tuma

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Windmills require continuous observing and command to attain the required output power when the wind velocity has fluctuated. Command a nonlinear physical windmill needs an efficient regulator that calibrates the environment's fluctuations and initial conditions. As the fluctuations in wind speed are continuous, the conventional type of control will not be active for most cases of wind variations. An efficient control technique has been suggested to damp the impacts of non-linearity property. The current research provides modeling, numerical verification, and analysis of model reference fuzzy control scheme for direct drive wind turbine coupled with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator tied with the electrical network. The machine side control is designed to capture the most considerable energy to get better wind power production. The grid side control regulates the bus voltage that is transformed into regulated three-phase grid voltage and frequency. The main control objectives of Proportional Integral control and model reference fuzzy control have been simulated and then compared. Armature profiles are also verified for different cases of operation through simulation. This controller's behavior guarantees excellent dynamic performance with wind speed variation due to the control system's robustness.

FoodWise: Geolocalised Food Wastes Tracking and Management

Ahmed Fadhil

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Food waste has a number of impacts, such as: economic, environmental and social. Recent efforts in human computer interaction research have examined methods with the goal of manage surplus food and food waste prevention. In addition, existing approaches have number of limitations related to the techniques used and food waste phase focused. In addition, to our knowledge, no approach provides an open access data for food waste (e.g., open API) to be used by any interested entities for data analysis. In this paper, the effectiveness of a number of engineering approaches in the literature is investigated and an analytical comparison is demonstrated. The second step is highlighting the pros and cons of the proposed strategy. Finally, we propose “FoodWise”, suitable tool for implementing the proposed strategy, by combining geo localization, gamification, and crowdsourcing techniques. The contribution of this study might present a new opportunity for any interested stockholders to play a significant role in minimizing food waste problem.

Design and Implementation of Artificial Upper Limbs Based on Arabic Speech Words

Jabbar Salman Huseein

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The human-like robot denotes a hopeful in the clinical, Handicapped and mechanical prosthetics application. The finger’s control by verbally instruction is one of the significance of such applications. Here, we introduce the suggested structure of the hand controls circuit come from the voiced command. This structure depends on the controlling of electrical motors, for every finger by controller. From recognition process, an Arduino have gotten a coded sign (PWM) to give all motors signals by various' period to the servo motor to yield the necessary procedure which is matching to the verbally expressed words. Anywhere these codes are identified with statistical features, which are extorted from the verbally expressed signs. At that point, and by means of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) as a classifier, the recognition percentage are from 90% - 99.375% have been increased with independent talker, wherever these results are over-achieved the previous works, approximately with 2.045%. The simulation has been made by using Matlab 2017b.

Toward Semi Flexible Pavement Application for Iraqi Highway and Airport Pavements: Review its feasibility

Saif Hameed Hlail

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The paving industry within the last century has developed extensively, mainly two paving technologies have targeted in this development, namely: flexible and rigid pavements. Although such technologies’ development is deeply enhanced, they still have unsolved shortcomings. Therefore, pavement researchers and engineers suggested benefiting from these two technology advantages by gathering them in a new technology called semi-flexible paving (SFP) to overcome the pointed shortcoming. The structural composition of SFP consists of porous asphalt, which contains air voids (25-35) % that inject with cementitious grout materials. As a result, the SFP surface course combines the pre-eminent qualities of bituminous pavements (flexible) and concrete (rigid). Serving the literature disclosed that the SFP has a very high resistance to the effect of traffic loads and weather conditions compared to conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA). Previous studies have shown that it can be applied in places with heavy traffic, i.e. heavy and slow traffic, for example, industrial areas, harbors, warehouses, distribution centers, road crossing, bus terminals, parking areas with heavy traffic, cargo centers, airports pavements, etc. Therefore, under uncontrolled high axle loads and extreme high summer and low winter ambient temperatures, SFP represents a suitable and achievable technique.

Calculation of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Finite Length Journal Bearing Considering 3D Misalignment

Zahraa A. AL Dujaili

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The main purpose of the journal bearing is to support the rotating parts by providing a sufficient layer of lubricant to separate the surfaces of the moving parts and to minimize the friction due to rotation. The misalignment is one of the common problems in the industrial applications of this type of bearing which has consequences on the general performance of the bearing system. The consequences include the reduction in the bearing load carrying capacity and the effect on the levels of the pressure distribution in additional to the asymmetrical pressure distribution along the bearing width. This study considers extreme cases of misalignment using a 3D model of the shaft deviation for the case of a finite length bearing. Numerical solution for Reynolds equation is considered in this work using the finite difference method where the static and dynamic characteristics of finite length journal bearing are investigated. The results reveal that the film thickness reduces significantly particularly at the edges of the additional to the presence of pressure spikes at these locations. Furthermore, the results of the dynamic coefficients have shown that the 3D misalignment affects these coefficients significantly which may have further consequences on the stability of the system.

Design and Implementation of Artificial Upper Limbs Based on Arabic Speech Words

Jabbar Salman Huseein

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The human-like robot denotes a hopeful in the clinical, Handicapped and mechanical prosthetics application. The finger’s control by verbally instruction is one of the significance of such applications. Here, we introduce the suggested structure of the hand controls circuit come from the voiced command. This structure depends on the controlling of electrical motors, for every finger by controller. From recognition process, an Arduino have gotten a coded sign (PWM) to give all motors signals by various' period to the servo motor to yield the necessary procedure which is matching to the verbally expressed words. Anywhere these codes are identified with statistical features, which are extorted from the verbally expressed signs. At that point, and by means of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) as a classifier, the recognition percentage are from 90% - 99.375% have been increased with independent talker, wherever these results are over-achieved the previous works, approximately with 2.045%. The simulation has been made by using Matlab 2017b.

Investigation on the Effects of Various Pore-Forming Agents on Bending Strength and Porosity of Al2O3 Ceramics

Mohammed Sabah Ali

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The current paper shows an economic and simple way which useful approach to produce porous ceramics (alumina) using three types of pore-forming agents (PFAs) utilizing a fugitive materials technique. Yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk (commercial), and waste of graphite from used primary batteries have been used as (PFAs). Practical results revealed that with increasing the PFA ratio for yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk, and waste of graphite the porosity increased from 30.2 to 63.8 %, 42.9 to 49.0%, and 37.3 to 61.1% respectively. Utilizing the three-point bending test, the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of porous ceramics (alumina) specimens was a function of the level of porosity. The characterization of mechanical behavior exhibit that the bending strength using the ash of rice husk increased at 50 wt% (92.38 ± 2.68 MPa) and 30 wt %( 93.03±4.07) due to the presence of the ceramic phases. While the bending strength of porous ceramics (alumina) using yeast material (natural active) and waste of graphite as PFAs decreased from 72.56±3.07 to 20.72±1.58 MPa and from 71.28±1.78 to 30.42±2.15 MPa respectively. Recommended application fields include the metal of molten, hot gas filters, and implantation processes.
 

Investigation Study for Model Reference Fuzzy Control Scheme of Synchronous Generator Coupled with Wind Turbine

Ahmed S. Al Tuma

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Windmills require continuous observing and command to attain the required output power when the wind velocity has fluctuated. Command a nonlinear physical windmill needs an efficient regulator that calibrates the environment's fluctuations and initial conditions. As the fluctuations in wind speed are continuous, the conventional type of control will not be active for most cases of wind variations. An efficient control technique has been suggested to damp the impacts of non-linearity property. The current research provides modeling, numerical verification, and analysis of model reference fuzzy control scheme for direct drive wind turbine coupled with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator tied with the electrical network. The machine side control is designed to capture the most considerable energy to get better wind power production. The grid side control regulates the bus voltage that is transformed into regulated three-phase grid voltage and frequency. The main control objectives of Proportional Integral control and model reference fuzzy control have been simulated and then compared. Armature profiles are also verified for different cases of operation through simulation. This controller's behavior guarantees excellent dynamic performance with wind speed variation due to the control system's robustness.

FoodWise: Geolocalised Food Wastes Tracking and Management

Ahmed Fadhil

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Food waste has a number of impacts, such as: economic, environmental and social. Recent efforts in human computer interaction research have examined methods with the goal of manage surplus food and food waste prevention. In addition, existing approaches have number of limitations related to the techniques used and food waste phase focused. In addition, to our knowledge, no approach provides an open access data for food waste (e.g., open API) to be used by any interested entities for data analysis. In this paper, the effectiveness of a number of engineering approaches in the literature is investigated and an analytical comparison is demonstrated. The second step is highlighting the pros and cons of the proposed strategy. Finally, we propose “FoodWise”, suitable tool for implementing the proposed strategy, by combining geo localization, gamification, and crowdsourcing techniques. The contribution of this study might present a new opportunity for any interested stockholders to play a significant role in minimizing food waste problem.

Investigating the physical properties of reed fly ash modified asphalt binder

Rand Mahdy; Shakir Al-Busaltan

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Asphalt binder represents a visco-elastic material that consist of four types of chemical fractions named saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltene, differ in their polarity and molecular weight, and then their effect on the properties of asphalt binder. The high solar absorption of asphalt binder due to its black color, making asphalt pavements suffer from various types of distresses like: rutting, fatigue, raveling, etc. The high increment in traffic loads and volumes nowadays leads to sever increment in these distresses. Therefore, the concept of improving asphalt pavements, as well as, reducing the environmental problems and maintaining the natural resources, in addition to saving costs, have stimulated researchers to use the sustainable materials in the improvement process of asphalt binder. Nevertheless, there are limited researches deals with these modifiers. This study aims to study the effect of Reed Fly Ash (RFA) that is represents a type of by-product materials on the physical properties of asphalt binder. Neat bitumen was blend with three dosages of RFA: 6%, 12% and 18% by weight of bitumen. The effect of this modifier on the properties of bitumen was characterized in terms of penetration, softening point, ductility, penetration index, viscosity and aging. The results of these properties indicate that the use of RFA as a modifier for asphalt binder help in decrease both penetration and ductility, increase softening point, viscosity and bitumen sensitivity, as well as, help in enhance the resistance of bitumen to aging, and the influence of RFA on these properties increase as RFA increase. The results encourage the concept of enhancing the asphalt binder by fly ash products.
     

Toward Semi Flexible Pavement Application for Iraqi Highway and Airport Pavements: Review its feasibility

Saif Hameed Hlail

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The paving industry within the last century has developed extensively, mainly two paving technologies have targeted in this development, namely: flexible and rigid pavements. Although such technologies’ development is deeply enhanced, they still have unsolved shortcomings. Therefore, pavement researchers and engineers suggested benefiting from these two technology advantages by gathering them in a new technology called semi-flexible paving (SFP) to overcome the pointed shortcoming. The structural composition of SFP consists of porous asphalt, which contains air voids (25-35) % that inject with cementitious grout materials. As a result, the SFP surface course combines the pre-eminent qualities of bituminous pavements (flexible) and concrete (rigid). Serving the literature disclosed that the SFP has a very high resistance to the effect of traffic loads and weather conditions compared to conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA). Previous studies have shown that it can be applied in places with heavy traffic, i.e. heavy and slow traffic, for example, industrial areas, harbors, warehouses, distribution centers, road crossing, bus terminals, parking areas with heavy traffic, cargo centers, airports pavements, etc. Therefore, under uncontrolled high axle loads and extreme high summer and low winter ambient temperatures, SFP represents a suitable and achievable technique.

Evaluation the Effect of Pressure Head and Soil Type on Erosion and Subsidence of Soil Due to Defective Sewers

Hussein.H. Khudhair; Basim K. Nile; Jabbar H. Al-Baidhani

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

Internal degradation induced in the metropolitan areas by leakage of sewers. As the resistance to erosion depends on the distribution of soil particles and the water pressure in sewer pipes, it is worthwhile to research the impact of water pressure on the soil erosion resistance of embedded pipes. This study aims to find  physical model tests which simulating erosion and sinkhole development due to cyclic leakage in an experimental ground model through defect sewers. Proposed parameters like cyclic leaks through pipe crashes, eroded soil properties, initiation cavity, and evolution up until sinkhole failure were studied. During this process, the ground settlement monitored with Paricle:Image Velocimetry (PIV). Also,  soils with various classification were utilized to identify the total subsidence for the different soil types. Five various water pressures were used:i.e., 0.8,1.1,1.4,1.7, and 2.0 meter,(7.85, 10.79, 13.73, 16.76, and 19.61 Kpa), respectively, and  local sandy soil, local loamy soil, and local clayey soil also were used. The results showed that two parameters influence soil failure,noticebliy:- the first is water pressure which has a direct proportion to erosion and subsidence, where the increment of total eroded soil of 2.0 m water head reached 3.95 times 0.8 m head , and the second is soil types which showed that the clayey soil is highly sensitive and suffering more from subsidence rather than erosion on the contrary of other soil types.

Investigation on the Effects of Various Pore-Forming Agents on Bending Strength and Porosity of Al2O3 Ceramics

Mohammed Sabah Ali

Kerbala Journal for Engineering Science, In Press

The current paper shows an economic and simple way which useful approach to produce porous ceramics (alumina) using three types of pore-forming agents (PFAs) utilizing a fugitive materials technique. Yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk (commercial), and waste of graphite from used primary batteries have been used as (PFAs). Practical results revealed that with increasing the PFA ratio for yeast material (natural active), ash of rice husk, and waste of graphite the porosity increased from 30.2 to 63.8 %, 42.9 to 49.0%, and 37.3 to 61.1% respectively. Utilizing the three-point bending test, the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of porous ceramics (alumina) specimens was a function of the level of porosity. The characterization of mechanical behavior exhibit that the bending strength using the ash of rice husk increased at 50 wt% (92.38 ± 2.68 MPa) and 30 wt %( 93.03±4.07) due to the presence of the ceramic phases. While the bending strength of porous ceramics (alumina) using yeast material (natural active) and waste of graphite as PFAs decreased from 72.56±3.07 to 20.72±1.58 MPa and from 71.28±1.78 to 30.42±2.15 MPa respectively. Recommended application fields include the metal of molten, hot gas filters, and implantation processes.
 

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The first issue has been published in Sept 2020.
The first issue has been published in Sept 2020.

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